Abstract: Ultrafast science aims to probe dynamics in atoms, molecules, and materials on time scales of femtoseconds to attoseconds. The invention of femtosecond lasers has led to experiments that have provided great insight into the behavior of matter on these ultrafast time scales. More recently, the process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) has allowed us to push time scales down to attoseconds. Further, HHG provides a table-top source of coherent extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray light which is ideal for studying electronic processes in various systems. In parallel with recent developments in HHG sources, X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facilities have emerged as a bright source of ultrashort coherent X-ray light and are now being pushed to the attosecond regime. In this talk, I will first provide a brief overview of HHG sources and XFEL facilities (particularly LCLS at SLAC in Stanford University) and discuss the various methods used in probing ultrafast dynamics. I will then present recent results from my laboratory with a new approach based on femtosecond electric-field-resolved nonlinear spectroscopy to probe ultrafast dynamics in different molecular and condensed matter systems. Finally, I will briefly discuss our preliminary work on generating and using attosecond entangled photons for probing ultrafast dynamics.